From the publisher VK global publications Pvt. Ltd. Is a household name now. Established in 1979, with more than three decades of leadership in the area of economics and commerce, we take pride in claiming that we continue with the unstirred readership in the country. Specialising in the area of economics and commerce, we are not averse to the idea of diversification. Keeping this in view, more than a decade ago, a series of 'exam idea' Was launched in all the subjects For classes IX -XII however, success of our publication is admittedly due to prudent prolific writers. We have resource-pool of reputed authors, who leave no stone unturned in bringing out the best of study material, which makes our readers versatile in their thought processes and equips them with the exam-oriented acumen. Thousands of acknowledgment and accolades that we receive every year from our readers are a good testimony to the genuine efforts and trustworthy endeavours of our authors the book has been designed topic and subtopic-wise, keeping the students’ needs in mind. The current edition has certain unique features: each Chapter starts with a to do list. It gives the central idea of the Chapter and the way it has been addressed. Each Chapter is divided into several sections corresponding to different components of the syllabus. Each Chapter is splashed with HOTS. This is to promote clarity of the basics. Focus zones in each Chapter present a crux of the concepts. Blocks in each Chapter include matter of special significance. Power points and revision window offer a quick glance of the subject matter. ‘Exercise’ is tuned to the pattern of examination. Answers to important questions focus on the technique of writing. The exercise includes: objective type questions (Remembering & understanding based Questions), divided into five sections: (a) multiple choice questions, (B) fill in the blanks, (C) true or false, matching the correct statements, (e) ‘very Short Answer’ objective type questions reason-based questions HOTS & applications analysis & Evaluation CBSE questions (with answers or reference to the text for answers) NCERT questions (with hints to answers) Miscellaneous and add-on questions (with hints or reference to the text for answers) dos and don'ts (at the end of each Chapter) should serve as a safeguard against misinterpretation of the concepts. Ability Zone is a uniquely designed section at the end of the Chapter this raises the difficulty level, of course, but should serve as a useful material for the outstanding learners. Solved & unsolved numerical are given to boost a grip on the subject.